Apparatus and Safety Precaution
Common Laboratory Apparatus
2.Test Tube Rack
|Test Tube Holder|
|Bunsen Burner||Stand and
|Mortar and Pestle
(used for grinding
paste or powder)
General Safety Rules and Precautions in Laboratory
Undergraduate experiments in our laboratories are designed with a view to minimizing hazards, but all laboratory and plant operations contain some elements of danger. It is essential that engineers develop a habit of safety in all experimental work. Before carrying out any laboratory operations, make certain that safety precautions have been considered.
As a general rule, accidents arise either from carelessness or ignorance and many accidents could have been prevented if common sense was exercised. These notes are designed to indicate some of the potential sources of accidents in our Chemical Engineering laboratories and how such accidents may be avoided.
1. Activity Strictly Forbidden
a) Smoking may constitute a fire hazard, therefore no smoking is allowed in the laboratory
b) Eating and drinking are not allowed inside the laboratory
c) Many of our experiments involve larger quantities of materials and larger scale machinery in continuous operation which requires close attention and supervision. Therefore, unauthorized experiments and working in the laboratory outside of class hours without permission are strictly forbidden.
2. Safety Equipment
Every student should know where to find and how to use the safety shower, fire blanket, fire extinguisher nearest his/her place of work. First aid kit, safety glasses, goggles, gas masks, and gloves of several types are available on load from the Preparation Room.
3. Footwear and Clothing
Proper footwear and clothing should be worn inside the laboratory. Students working on experimental rigs which require climbing are not allowed to wear skirts and high heel shoes or sandals.
4. Inflammable Liquids
Never use an open flame to heat inflammable materials. Inflammable volatile liquids such as alcohol and petrol should be kept well away from open flame.
Small fire may be allowed to burn out, or may be smothered with a damp cloth. Large fire—summon help, and use a fire extinguisher operated from a safe distance. Never attempt to blow out a fire, even a small one.
6. Fire on Clothing
When a person’s clothing catches fire, throw him/her to the floor and roll him/her to smother the flame quickly. If a fire blanket or a laboratory coat is very handy, it may used. If near a shower, roll him/her under and then turn on the water. Never let him/her stand up until the fire has been put out. This procedure prevents injury to the respiratory passages and eyes by the flame which would naturally rise and envelope the head. Never use an extinguisher of any type on a person as contents of an extinguisher may cause other injuries.
7. Handling of Hot Objects
Never use a handkerchief or paper pad to handle hot objects. Tongs and leather gloves are provided in experiments that involve the handling of hot objects. Whenever the need of such tools arises, obtain them from the Preparation Room.
8. Handling of Broken Glass
Never use your bare fingers to pick up pieces of broken glass. Use other appropriate means to remove broken glass and put it in a container marked ‘For Broken Glass Only’.
9. Eye Protection
Everyone is encouraged to wear safety glasses inside the laboratory. Safety glasses are available on loan from the lab. Those with glasses of their own may wear them during laboratory work. When safety glasses are supplied together with the experimental apparatus, students doing the experiment must wear them throughout the laboratory period. When liquid or powder chemicals splash into the eye, flush it immediately with plenty of water. An eye specialist must be consulted immediately after any eye accident.
10. Alkali and Acid Spill
Dilute alkali and acid solutions are used in some of the experiments. Neutralise spilled alkali with dilute hydrochloric acid, neutralise spilled acids by sprinkling sodium bicarbonate powder on the spill. A package of sodium bicarbonate is available in each laboratory for this purpose.
11. Mercury Spill
Mercury spill manometer occurs quite frequently which can be prevented by avoiding sudden pressure surge in the manometer. Report any mercury spill at once to the Demonstrator-in-charge. Laboratory Technicians will clean up the spill immediately.
12. Use of Chromic Acid
Wear rubber gloves when cleaning glassware with chromic acid.
13. Measuring with Pipett
Always use an aspirator bulb, not your mouth, to draw liquid into a pipette.
14. Chemical Burns
When chemical is spilled on the skin, wash it off immediately with plenty of water. If the spill is extensive on the body and clothing use the safety shower.
15. Report All Accidents and Injuries, however small to the Demonstrator or Staff-in-charge who will record the occurrence in a log book.